What is Communication?
is varied as asked towards others. People may think it as the sharing of ideas and information. While many others think of primarily in oral or written form, communication is much more. Example, a knowing look or a gentle touch can also communicate a message loud and clear, as can a hard push or an angry slap. Furthermore, communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. It is also said that communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. This definition suggests that there can be several different types of communication, falling into the categories of non-verbal or verbal.
Non-verbal communication involves exchanging information or transmitting data without the use of words. There are many examples of non-verbal communication everywhere in the world.While you may not stop to think about it, a red light or a stop sign is a clear form of non-verbal communication. No one is physically telling you to stop, but you see that symbol or signal and know immediately what is expected of you. Likewise, body language and facial expressions are also examples of non-verbal communication. Over the years, numerous research studies have been done to suggest that babies respond to smiling faces the world over, and that when a person sees someone else smile, he may become a bit happier as well. Thus, while understanding non-verbal communication may require some knowledge of the cultural and social meanings behind the symbols and signs used, some types of non-verbal communication are instinctual and no teaching is necessary.
On the other hand, the system of verbal communication has become quite complex, with unique languages each having millions of words. Unlike non-verbal communication, in order for verbal communication to be meaningful, there must generally be a readily accepted understanding of the meaning of a series of sounds. In other words, sounds and words alone aren't sufficient to communicate: the person transmitting the message and the person receiving the message generally must have a cultural background or shared knowledge that allows them to understand what those sounds have come to mean. However, even some oral or verbal communication can be intuitive. For example, animals use verbal communication all the time to transmit messages to each other. Birds sing, some bugs chirp when mating, hounds bark to alert the pack on a hunt, and even whales sing, although scientists aren't 100 percent certain what those songs mean. The fact that language was one of man's earliest developments, and the fact that there are similarities among languages and that animals also engage in oral communication, all suggest that although some shared cultural understanding is necessary, the specific act of verbal communication may be innate.
Thus over time, the methods and means used to communicate have expanded greatly. In early records, hieroglyphics and primitive cave paintings were used to communicate information and transmit messages. Oral stories and traditions were also passed down through generations and eventually many of these stories also came to be written down in some cultures. The use of carrier pigeons, followed by Morse code and telegraph technology expanded the reach of communication, making it possible for people to send messages over longer distances. Today, communication has expanded and is easier than ever before. Television allows messages to be communicated quickly and instantly to millions of viewers worldwide, and viewers can watch events such as political elections unfold in real time. Perhaps nothing has changed communication so much as the Internet. While television and radio provided one-way communication, the Internet allows for the two-way exchange of information and lets people throughout the world send data instantly and share ideas immediately. Video chat, instant messages and even voice-over-IP telephone systems make it possible to connect with and communicate with more people than ever before.
Culture is often thought of as merely the unique, interesting, or odd behaviours exhibited by people who live in a different country and speak a different language. The reality is that culture is much deeper and broader. Culture consists not only of behaviours and practices, but also of deeply held beliefs about what is right, appropriate. It is passed from generation to generation, in the words and actions of parents, teachers, and fellow community members. It is so deeply rooted inside our minds and hearts that we often cannot imagine a world in which our values, the way we define right and wrong, could possibly be thought of any other way. Culture is also not unique to different countries. Cultures arise anytime we find ourselves as part of a group that shares an ideal or experience. While national culture, based on the country in which we grew up and went to school, is often the strongest and broadest of our cultures, we always have other cultures that play a role in how we see the world around us. Religious culture is moulded by our sacred texts and the teachings of religious leaders. Local culture is instilled in us based on our location: those who grew up on the seaside are likely to value certain things that others who grew up in the mountains or in an inland urban environment would.
To discover your own cultures you need to begin to ask yourself what groups you are a part of, what those groups value, and how that has impacted the choices you make every day in life. Understanding culture is important and necessary for anyone who wishes to build success in today’s growingly diverse world. This world is a multicultural world, thus all of us should be ready to deal with the cultures around us.
What is Intercultural Communication?
Intercultural communication in its most basic form refers to an academic field of study and research. It seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures behave, communicate and perceive the world around them.. As a separate notion, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. There are many researchers and academics of note within the intercultural field, who naturally all have different definitions of 'intercultural communication'. For example Karlfried Knapp defines it as "'Intercultural communication,' can...be defined as the interpersonal interaction between members of different groups, which differ from each other in respect of the knowledge shared by their members and in respect of their linguistic forms of symbolic behaviour." For those wanting to dig a bit deeper it may be a good idea to look into the works of Edward T. Hall, ‘We should never denigrate any other culture but rather help people to understand the relationship between their own culture and the dominant culture. When you understand another culture or language, it does not mean that you have to lose your own culture’.
Furthermore, the findings of such academic research are then applied to 'real life' situations such as how to create cultural synergy between people from different cultures within a business or other professions. Theories developed by the researchers and academics can and have been applied to many fields such as business, management, marketing, advertising and website design. As business becomes more and more international, many companies need to know how best to structure their companies manage staff and communicate with customers. Intercultural communication gives them an insight into the areas they need to address or understand. Intercultural communication theories are now also used within the education, health care and other public services due to growing multicultural populations.
About the Movie
The movie is entitled ‘Australia” and undoubtedly it is a movie about the rustic country itself and its history and ever blossoming culture. Australia was released in the year 2008 and its story is based in epic historical romance film directed by Baz Luhrmann and starring two highly recognized a-list Australian actors, Nicole Kidman alongside Hugh Jackman. It is the second-highest grossing Australian film of all time, behind Crocodile Dundee. The movies genre is based on romance, history, drama and adventure.
The movie is about, Lady Sarah Ashley (Nicole Kidman) travels from England to northern Australia in 1939 to force her philandering husband to sell his faltering cattle station, Faraway Downs. Her husband sends an independent cattle drover (Hugh Jackman), called "Drover", to transport her to Faraway Downs. Lady Sarah's husband is murdered shortly before she arrives, and the authorities tell her that the killer is an Aboriginal elder, "King George" .The childless Lady Sarah is captivated by the boy Nullah, who is an Aborigine. Nullah tells her that he has seen her cattle being driven onto Carney's land — in other words, stolen from her. Because of this Fletcher mistreats Nullah and threatens to kill him and his mother, so Lady Sarah fires Fletcher and decides to try and run the cattle station herself.
Lady Sarah persuades Drover to take the cattle to Darwin for sale. Drover leads a team of six other riders, including Lady Sarah, Drover's Aboriginal brother-in-law Magarri , Nullah, and the station's accountant Kipling Flynn (Jack Thompson), to drive the 1,500 cattle to Darwin. Then, Lady Sarah and Drover fall in love, and she gains a new appreciation for the Australian territory. The team drive the cattle through the dangerous desert with obstacles thrown by Carney’s man.
The, Nullah is drawn to perform a walkabout with his grandfather "King George", but is instead taken by the authorities and sent to live on Mission Island with the other half-Aboriginal children (dubbed the "Stolen Generations"). Lady Sarah, who has come to regard Nullah as her adopted son, vows to rescue him. Meanwhile, she works as a radio operator in Darwin during the escalation of World War II. When the Japanese attack the island and Darwin in 1942.
Drover, who had quarrelled with Lady Sarah because she wants to save Nullah left, returns to Darwin and hears (mistakenly) that she has been killed in the bombing. Drover learns of Nullah's abduction to Mission Island, and goes with Magarri and a young priest to rescue him and the other children. Meanwhile, Lady Sarah is about to evacuate, but when Drover and the children sail back into port at Darwin.Fletcher, distraught at the ruination of his plans, attempts to shoot Nullah, but is speared by King George and falls dead. Lady Sarah, Drover, and Nullah return to the safety of remote Faraway Downs. There, King George calls for Nullah, who returns to the Outback with his grandfather.
History, Culture and Language of the movie ‘Australia’
The setting of the movie is in the era before and during World War II. As noted, Lady Sarah Ashley was an aristocrat veteran, thus, she came from United Kingdom, where a form of government in which a few elite citizens rule. In later times, aristocracy was seen as rule by a privileged group (the aristocratic class) and contrasted with democracy. So, here a person who is from a aristocrat ruling is in-depth with high society and is at the top most of its highest social class. Furthermore, in some parts of the movie it is notable that in true history facts , the Japanese which were from the Imperial Japan during World War II bombed several of times in Darwin on 1942, and the subsequent exodus south, known as the ‘Adelaide River Stakes’. Many people will understandably be unfamiliar with these historical events.
On the other hand, before the arrival of European settlers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples inhabited most areas of the Australian continent. They spoke one or more of hundreds of separate languages and dialects, and their lifestyles and cultural traditions differed from region to region. Their complex social systems and highly developed traditions reflect a deep connection with the land. Asian and Oceanic mariners and traders were in contact with Indigenous Australians for many centuries before the era of European expansion. Some formed substantial relationships with communities in northern Australia. The first recorded European contact with Australia was in March 1606, when Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon (1571–1638) charted the west coast of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. In 1688, William Dampier became the first British explorer to land on the Australian north west coast. It was not until 1770 that another Englishman, Captain James Cook, aboard the Endeavour, extended a scientific voyage to the South Pacific in order to further chart the east coast of Australia and claim it for the British Crown. Thus, we can see that Nullah a part f the character in the story is a half aborigines, so, we can see that their society is changing as the British in settlement is progressing during that time. Scarcity of labour, the vastness of the land and new wealth based on farming, mining and trade made Australia a land of opportunity. Yet during this period Indigenous Australians suffered enormously. Death, illness, displacement and dispossession disrupted traditional lifestyles and practices.
The define culture of Australia is divided in many categories arts, music, rituals, clothing and so forth. It is evident that the arts and music were in Australia among the aborigines people. In the movie, we can see that Nullah was playing a harmonica and his tribes were also playing and singing different instruments which were wooden in the movie. This music was called the indigenous music. In other parts of the movie, we could also not that the British were into folk music and classical music because they were adapted from Europe. On the other hand, we can see rituals in some parts of the movies were the Aborigines people had witch doctors and other superstation arts. The Rainbow Serpent is a major ancestral being for many Aboriginal people across Australia. Baiame or Bunjil are regarded as the primary creator-spirits in South-East Australia this was mentioned in the movie when the Drover explained the aboriginal culture to Lady Sarah.
During the twentieth century the types of clothing worn by Western Australia's original inhabitants were influenced by European styles. Prior to contact with British colonists, according to the climate of each region in Western Australia clothing was not always considered a necessity. In cooler areas skin cloaks using possum, wallaby or kangaroo were worn to give protection from the cold and wet while in warmer regions decoration, rather than clothing in a European sense, was traditionally used for ceremonial purposes. So, the as we can see the movie took place in the northern region, thus, it was hot they didn’t were anything except for body paint and shells to cover up certain parts of the body. Other than that, when the aristocrat came in here which was Lady Sarah she wore a dress that was seemingly too hot for the weather when she arrived. Stylistic developments in women's clothing reflect their liberation from the constraints of the restrictive clothes worn in the 19th century. The heavy fabrics - gussets, corsets, starched collars. Since, they were in the North they had to wear lighter and cooler clothes because of the dry weather. In the movie the Drover wore cowboy styled clothing as well as the other British people. This was true for people working in all regions of Western Australia including the far north and northwest, where Europeans often wore the pith helmet of the British colonial tropics.
There were more than 250 languages spoken by Indigenous Australians prior to the arrival of Europeans. Most of these are now either extinct or moribund, with only about fifteen languages still being spoken by all age groups. Linguists classify mainland Australian languages into one large group, the Pama–Nyungan languages. The rest are sometimes lumped under the term "non-Pama–Nyungan". The Pama–Nyungan languages comprise the majority, covering most of Australia, and are generally thought to be a family of related languages. In the north, stretching from the Western Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria, are found a number of non-Pama–Nyungan groups of languages which have not been shown to be related to the Pama–Nyungan family nor to each other. It has been suggested that, given their long presence in Australia, Aboriginal languages form one specific sub-grouping. The position of Tasmanian languages is unknown, and it is also unknown whether they comprised one or more than one specific language family.
Although Australia has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the "de facto" language. Australian generally follows the Queen's English spelling and grammar norms, but has its own distinctive accent and vocabulary – including the distinctive "g'day", a common and renowned greeting used in Australia. It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Australian Aboriginal languages at the time of first European contact, but only about 70 of these languages have survived and all but 20 of these are now endangered. An indigenous language is the main language for about 50,000 people (0.25% of the population).